What is SIPRI?
Recently, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) launched the findings of the SIPRI Yearbook 2022. It assesses the current state of armaments, disarmament, and international security.
What is SIPRI?
- The SIPRI is an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control, and disarmament.
- Established in 1966 in Stockholm, SIPRI provides data, analysis, and recommendations, based on open sources to policymakers, researchers, media, and the interested public.
What are the Key Findings?
- Global Nuclear warheads Scenario: Nuclear warheads are the explosive head of a missile or torpedo that uses nuclear energy. The nine nuclear-armed states—the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel, and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea)—continue to modernize their nuclear arsenals and although the total number of nuclear weapons declined slightly between January 2021 and January 2022, the number will probably increase in the next decade.
- Russia and the USA together possess over 90% of all nuclear weapons.
- SIPRI identified 164 states as importers of major arms in 2016-20. The five largest arms importers were Saudi Arabia, India, Egypt, Australia, and China, which together accounted for 36% of total arms imports.
- Suppliers of Major Arms: The five largest suppliers in 2016-20 – the United States, Russia, France, Germany, and China – accounted for 76% of the total volume of exports of major arms.
- In 2021, both India and Pakistan introduced and continued to develop new types of nuclear delivery systems, indicating that they are expanding their nuclear arsenals.
- Israel—which does not publicly acknowledge possessing nuclear weapons—is also believed to be modernizing its nuclear arsenal.
- Signs that post-cold war decline in nuclear arsenals is ending – a worrying trend.
What are the Several Landmarks in the Nuclear Diplomacy?
- Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW): After receiving the required 50 ratifications, the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) entered into force in January 2021.
- US-Russian arms control agreement New START was extended for five years.
- Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA): The start of talks on the USA rejoining and Iran returning to compliance with the Iran nuclear deal, the JCPOA.
- Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Nuclear-armed permanent members (P5) of the United Nations Security Council reaffirmed their commitment to complying with non-proliferation, disarmament, and arms control agreements and pledges as well as their obligations under the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
What are the Hindrances in Nuclear Diplomacy?
- All P5 members continue to expand or modernize their nuclear arsenals.
- Russia has even made open threats about possible nuclear weapon use in the context of the war in Ukraine.
- Bilateral Russia–USA strategic stability talks have stalled because of the war, and none of the other nuclear-armed states are pursuing arms control negotiations.
- Moreover, the P5 members of the UNSC have voiced opposition to the TPNW, and the JCPOA negotiations have not yet reached a resolution.