open source meaning

What is open source?

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Open source means that the code of a software application is made freely available to the public, along with the right to use, modify, and distribute the code. Many popular software applications, such as the Linux operating system, the Apache web server, and the Python programming language, are open source.

There are several benefits to making an algorithm open source:

  1. Collaboration: By making an algorithm open source, developers and researchers from around the world can collaborate on improving it. They can work together to identify and fix bugs, optimize performance, and add new features.
  2. Transparency: Open sourcing an algorithm makes it transparent, allowing others to examine the code and understand how it works. This can increase trust and accountability, particularly for algorithms that have significant impacts on people’s lives, such as those used in healthcare or finance.
  3. Innovation: Open sourcing an algorithm can lead to new and innovative uses of the technology. Developers can build on top of the existing codebase and create new applications that may not have been possible otherwise.
  4. Education: Open sourcing an algorithm can also serve as an educational resource. Students and aspiring developers can learn from the code and use it as a starting point for their own projects.

In a tweet, Musk said that the company will open source all code used to recommend tweets. He went on to say that Twitter’s recommendation algorithm is overly complicated and not fully understood inside the company. Musk further added that providing code transparency will be incredibly embarrassing at first, but it should lead to a rapid improvement in recommendation quality.

Making the code open source would allow developers, including aspiring competitors, to place their own spins on the algorithm.

Source: livemint

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salt who

What are the recommendations?

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Table salt is the main source of sodium (sodium chloride). Sodium helps nerves and muscles work and keeps the right amount of water in the body. The amount of salt in the body is controlled by the kidneys. High blood pressure can happen when there is too much sodium in the blood. When consumed in excess, sodium increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and premature death.

The average amount of salt people eat around the world is more than double what the WHO recommends. WHO says that adults should not eat more than 5 grams (just under a teaspoon) of salt each day.

The World Health Organization has put out a report saying that we are not on track to meet its global goal of cutting sodium intake by 30% by 2025.

If the policies suggested to reduce sodium intake are put into place, they can stop two million deaths by 2025 and seven million by 2030.

Source: WHO

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What happens when the cancer is detected?

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The primary cancer treatments are surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapy.

  • Surgery (removing cancer)
  • Radiotherapy (delivering radiation to the tumor)
  • Systemic therapy (administering medicines that act on the tumor)
    • Chemotherapy (a drug used to kill cancer cells): Because chemotherapy drugs impact so many different types of cells in the body, they have limited success and severe side effects.
    • Immunotherapy (the drugs bind to specific targets on cancer and kill it): But it only works on tumors that show signs of these targets.
    • CAR T-Cell Therapy

Surgery and radiotherapy have improved over time, but advances in systemic therapy have been particularly impressive, with (CAR) T-cell therapy being a recent breakthrough that is getting a lot of attention around the world.

Unlike chemotherapy or immunotherapy, which involve taking drugs, CAR T-cell therapies use a patient’s own cells. This therapy works well for most people (90% of the time). This therapy has been approved for leukemias and lymphomas.


  1. T cells are taken from a patient’s blood.
  2. A gene that binds to a certain protein in the patient’s cancer cells is added to the T cells in the laboratory. In other words, CAR T-Cells are made in the lab. 
  3. Large numbers of CAR T cells are grown in the laboratory and given to the patient by infusion.
CAR T-cell therapy

CAR T-cell therapies are more specific than targeted agents because they directly stimulate the patient’s immune system to combat cancer, resulting in higher clinical efficacy. That’s why they are known as “living drugs.”


  • The effectiveness varies depending on the sort of cancer.
  • The cost is high, and the technical expertise and resources required to administer the therapy are significant.
  • Currently used to treat cancers that have not responded to prior treatments or that have returned after successful initial treatment.

Source: TH

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high seas

What is the High Seas Treaty?

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The United Nations High Seas Treaty, also known as the Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ) Treaty, is the first-ever treaty to safeguard the world’s oceans beyond national borders. It is also referred to as the ‘Paris Agreement for the Ocean.’ 

What does “High Seas” mean?

  • The high seas start at the edge of a country’s exclusive economic zone, which can be up to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coast.
  • Beyond that point, no country has control over the seas, and all countries can fish, sail, and do research there.
  • They cover more than 60% of the surface area of the world’s oceans.
  • Activities on the high seas are often not regulated and aren’t watched closely enough, leaving them open to abuse.
  • As per the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), a country has the right to resource extraction in the continental shelf, territorial sea, and exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

At the moment, two-thirds of the world’s oceans are considered international waters, or the high seas. But only about 1% of these waters have been protected up until now. Nearly 10% of marine species on the high seas are at risk of dying out, according to the IUCN. This is mostly because of overfishing and pollution. Climate change (more CO2 being absorbed, more acidic water, and more marine heat waves) and deep sea mining also hurt 41% of the species that are in danger.

What does the UN High Seas Treaty say?

  • It is a legally binding treaty that protects marine life in international waters.
  • The EU, US, UK, and China were all very important in making the deal happen.
  • It wants to protect 30% of the seas by 2030, give more money to marine conservation, and make new rules for mining at sea.
  • It also sets up plans for sharing marine genetic resources, such as biological material from plants and animals in the ocean.
  • It will set up a legal framework for creating large marine protected areas (MPAs) to protect wildlife and make sure that the genetic resources of the high seas are shared out fairly.
  • It also includes environmental assessments to figure out how damaging business activities, like deep-sea mining, might be.
  • It will set up a conference of the parties (CoP) that will meet on a regular basis and give member states a chance to be held accountable for things like governance and biodiversity.
  • The treaty also includes a pledge by signatories to share ocean resources.
  • The treaty is based on the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which was signed in 1982 and is the last international agreement on ocean protection. UNCLOS established an area called the high seas.

Way ahead: The treaty must be formally adopted and it will go “into force” when enough countries (~ 40) have signed it and made it legal in their own countries.

Source: The Guardian

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proton beam therapy

What is proton beam therapy? 

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Proton beam therapy is a type of cancer treatment that kills cancer cells with a beam of high-energy protons. Proton therapy works well for tumors that are close to important parts of the body, like the brain, spine, or organs, where it is important to minimize damage to adjoining healthy tissue.

It has been shown to be very effective at curing or controlling many types of cancer while reducing both short-term and long-term side effects. It not only increases the chance that a patient will live, but it also improves their quality of life after treatment.

But it doesn’t work for all types of cancer, and because the equipment needed is expensive, it might not be available in all places.

The government should put more effort into setting up PBT centers so that more people with cancer can get treatment.

Source: FE

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What are neutrinos?

by Admin
What are neutrinos?

Neutrino research will reveal the secrets of the universe

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Physicists working with the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) in Japan recently reported that after analyzing two years’ worth of data, they were unable to discover any indications that neutrinos could be their own antiparticles. What does it mean?

What exactly is an antiparticle? Every form of particle has an antiparticle with the same mass but opposite physical charges, according to quantum theory. If the two meet, they will destroy each other, producing light.

For example, the positron is the antiparticle of the electron. Neutrinos have particles called anti-neutrinos. But you can tell the difference between an electron and a positron because they have different charges. Neutrinos and anti-neutrinos aren’t really different from each other because neither has an electric charge or any other real difference. Neutrinos don’t have a clear answer to the question of whether or not they are their own antiparticles. If they were, physicists could explain why there is more matter than antimatter in the universe. But an experiment in Japan recently failed to find “strong evidence” that this is the case, ruling out certain—but not all—theories.

Why we exist?

When the Universe was made, the Big Bang theory says, there would have been the same amount of matter and antimatter. As the Universe got cooler, matter and antimatter would destroy each other, leaving only light. But since we are here, that didn’t happen. So, something stopped matter and antimatter from cancelling each other out. We don’t know what caused that imbalance, and if we did, we’d know why we exist. One of the largest open questions now is whether or not neutrinos violate some theory. A matter-dominated Universe suggests this. The only place we have not yet looked to answer this question is neutrinos.

About Neutrinos:

  • Neutrinos are mysterious particles generated in abundance by nuclear reactions in the Sun, stars, and elsewhere. Neutrinos are made by different kinds of radioactive decay, like when cosmic rays hit atoms or during a supernova.
  • After photons (light particles), neutrinos are the second most prevalent particles in the universe.
  • Despite their abundance, our knowledge of neutrinos is limited as their minimal interactions with matter make them very difficult to detect.
  • They also “oscillate,” which means that various neutrino types transform into one another.
  • Neutrino oscillations and how they relate to mass are very important for studying how the universe began. 
  • Neutrinos are excellent carriers of information from parts of the universe that we don’t have access to, like bursting stars and black holes.

Source: TH

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In the civil war of 1945–1949, the ruling government of China fled to Taiwan after being defeated by communist forces. The Communist Party of China, led by Mao …

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