A kind of a political system (whether one party system, two-party system or multi-party system) can pose in-front of us different possibilities of boon and bane. To choose what’s best among various options can be tedious. But in reality balance plays a role and things get chosen automatically to reach an equilibrium.
Keeping in view India as a case study, one can get easily confused about what can work best. This is because diversity has a role to play making India a unique case. Immediately after independence and many years thereafter, India was ruled by one party. One cannot truly estimate that it was for their own good or not. The reason being India never got to experience the alternate option at that point in time. But eventually with time regional foothold started to emerge and India experienced the growth of other parties and viewpoints. As a result, people of India also come across coalition governments.
PROS AND CONS
Coalition governments are one form of multi-party system where no one gains the majority in the legislature. This is a common scenario when the country is not ruled by one or two dominant players but by many. Things become extremely complicated and difficult to achieve as decision making is slowed down as it becomes a task in itself to bring everybody aboard with respect to important matters. Party members are often witnessed trying to placate other members rather than making efforts to implement the right strategies. All this happens just to remain in power. This kind of system is detrimental in scenarios where immediate deeds need to be performed without any delays.
At the same time, it makes ruling tiresome. More often it results in deadlock and paralysis in the legislatures. It is difficult to put in place reforms like uniform civil code which is one of the hotly debated topics of today.
On the contrary, the one-party system can bring forward strong policies without fear. The results are quick as the decision making. There is confidence in every word spoken as the opposition is nullified. Also, the ruling party cannot shy away from the responsibility they carry. Eventually, they have to show results and cannot pass the burden for long. This what happened in Singapore. One-party rule in Singapore made it a place which even the western countries liked to imitate though failed terribly.
But since every coin has two sides, the one-party dominant system is also not without any fallacies. There is a lack of any check and balance. One in power is almost free to do anything and everything. This breeds corruption, nepotism and finally misfortune. This was somewhat witnessed when the emergency was declared and the concept of kitchen cabinet emerged in India. So, to keep a check judiciary and media act as support groups but another party is still a necessity. They bring about an alternate way of governing and policymaking. It brings forward the options before common people to choose from. This increases the awareness and participation of people.
One Party System or Two Party System?
But if we compare one rule with two-party rule rather than multi-party, the advantages are in favour of two ruled. America with federation with a diverse population because of its immigrant policies set an example and a benchmark. Also being a developed nation and most powerful one too, one wonders whether its political system is the best and works for all. But what working there is uniform secular law that applies to all irrespective of the religion.
India has unique secularism because of its culture. Therefore, there is rigidity and caste involved. These things change the course of action considerably and have an impact on thinking and way of life. Irrational attitudes prevent one thinking and contribute different interpretations to the same problems. Two party ideally means two ideologies only. Now, this is difficult to implement in India where definitions and expositions are many.
India being a federation with diversity playing its part, it is difficult to have the one-party rule also. There will always be small regional groups acting its influence and pressurising the one ruling. Even Lee Kuan Yew who transformed Singapore into a great nation initially doubted whether India can survive to become a nation with such great diversity. Taking this as basis it is difficult to have one dominant party ruling. Therefore, something that is difficult to predict can happen; it becomes even more difficult to predict whether it will succeed.
One is not even sure what is required from one party to achieve success. But still, it is a better option than the coalition. As people have become more literate and politically sound, there is always a chance that they will voice their opinion if things go awry in one-party rule. With social media coming into picture it is hardly possible to make anybody do anything these days. There is always an explanation required. At the same time when the world has become globalised and when outsiders are watching, it is difficult that rule of tyranny or dictatorship, where people lives are jeopardised, can establish a strong foothold. The environment has changed, so it is possible that past mistakes can be avoided when India was ruled by one party.
But domination in any form can jeopardise the relations. When relations are jeopardised happiness can be compromised. When happiness is compromised things astray. So relations with the common people should be maintained through out. That’s a definite necessity and requirement nobody can deny.